References & Links


Useful websites


Flickr provided images under the creative commons license.

Wikipedia sites provided many copyright-friendly images used in this website:


Further reading

Benson T. Massey, M (2006) 

Physiology of oral cavity, pharynx and upper esophageal sphincter

GI Motility online -


Vender RJ, Spiro HM (1982)

Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy

J Clin Gasrtoenterol 4(3):231-49